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考研英语阅读理解精读100篇之信-城市总裁吧-城市学习网—中国教育导航资讯门户
  
 
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考研英语阅读理解精读100篇之信

作者:城市学习网 来源:xue.net 更新日期:2007-12-10

考研英语阅读理解精读100unit43

Unit 43

DOTCOMS may be moribund, but inside companies, the Internet is still finding cost-saving new uses. "B2E--business-to-employee--didn't have a crash," says Bipin Patel, in charge of developing the potential of the corporate intranet at the Ford Motor Company. "It's still growing."
 
Ford has gone further than most companies to get its employees online: it offered its American employees personal computers, and 90% of them accepted. Ford hopes that the free PCs will save its own and its employees' time by moving services online. General Motors, Ford's great rival, considered a similar scheme but found that most employees willing to use PCs already had them. It is helping staff to pay for high-bandwidth connections instead.
 
At Ford, the human-resources department has pioneered a scheme to provide up-to-the-minute information to employees about pay and benefits. In the past, employees sometimes found that it took weeks to get a copy of the pay information they needed to do their tax returns, and the department's staff spent mind-numbing hours answering the same questions from hundreds of different employees. Now employees can look at a password-protected site that displays their payslips over the previous 18 months. They can see all deductions, and the hours they worked. All this information was on the human-resources database: displaying it to employees has saved staff time.
 
"People want more and more of this self-service information, which they can manage themselves," observes Mr Patel. "There is no such thing as information overload here, because it's their information." Even training seems to work better online: Ford employees can now download a range of courses, including one on "Listening and Handling Tough Situations", all designed for digestion in ten- or 15-minute gobbets. The company claims to have cut training costs by $2m during the past six months, as fewer people leave their desks to learn.
 
The company also uses its intranet to communicate with its staff around the world. Jacques Nasser, Ford's boss, sends out "Let's chat" notes once a week. In fact, Mr Nasser does most of the chatting. He gets hundreds of e-mails in reply, but the communication is basically a one-way flow. The company also runs chatrooms, in which employees can question various inhouse experts and outside analysts live on the corporate intranet.
 
In time, thinks Mr Patel, communications technology will reshape corporate behaviour. It will encourage collaboration and team-working. Already, the Internet is causing disintermediation within companies, he argues, just as it did in e-commerce: the human-resources department does much less administration once the benefits system is more self-service, but rather more advising and consulting. One day, working in human resources might even be fun.
 
注(1):本文选自Economist; 8/25/2001, p50, 1/3p;
注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象2004年真题Text 1(其中个别题目顺序做了部分调整);
 
1.       How does the author introduce his topic?
 
[A]Posing a contrast.
[B]justifying an assumption.
[C]Explaining a phenomenon.
[D]Making a comparison.
 
2.       Why did Ford and GM intend to provide their employees with PCs?
 
[A]PCs can help them save a lot.
[B]B2E is a growing thing.
[C]The employees prefer to use PCs.
[D]Proving PCs is a way of competition.
 
3.       Which of the following is not the advantage of internet?
 
[A]It can save time.
[B]It can save cost.
[C]It encourages collaboration and team-working.
[D]It makes human-resources department an easy job.
 
4.       The expression “a one-way flow”(Line 3, Paragraph 5) most probably means
__________.
 
[A]not encouraging open answers
[B]only one side asking questions
[C]only yes or no questions
[D]the topics lack variety
 
5.       Which of the following is true according to the text?
 
[A]The Internet can help DOTCOMS come back to life.
[B]The courses downloaded are practical, but time-consuming.
[C]The internet makes the work of human-resources department more direct and interesting.
[D]The employees can manage all the information by themselves.
 
答案:CADBC
 
篇章剖析
本文介绍了一些公司如何借助国际互联网的形式来为公司节约时间、节省开支的。文章第一段指出电子商务形式B2E(“企业对职员”)仍然在发展;第二段指出福特和通用公司类似的做法,希望电脑能为他们节省时间;第三段、四段和五段指出互联网在福特公司的具体应用;最后一段指出互联网对公司行为模式的影响。
 
词汇注释
inside out 里子朝外的;完全地,彻底地
moribund [5mRrIbQnd; (?@) 5mC:r] adj. 即将结束的,濒临死亡的;即将灭亡的,垂死的;濒死的,不进步的
tax returns n. 纳税申报表
mind-numbing adj. 令人脑袋麻木的
payslip [`peIslIp] n. 工资单
gobbet n. 一片,一块(尤指生肉);一点,少量
disintermediation n. 不干预,脱媒(非中介化)[一般是指在进行交易时跳过所有中间人而直接在供需双方间进行。]
Note:
B2E即“企业对职员”,它强调的是职员,而不是客户或者企业。B2E解决日益突出的IT人才短缺状况。从某种程度上来说,它使企业调动一切可能的因素来吸引和挽留高素质的IT人才,比如:大胆的创新理念、优厚的待遇、深造机会、灵活的上班时间、丰厚的奖金以以及职员授权策略等。
 
难句突破
Already, the Internet is causing disintermediation within companies, he argues, just as it did in e-commerce: the human-resources department does much less administration once the benefits system is more self-service, but rather more advising and consulting.
主体句式:the Internet is causing disintermediation within companies …
结构分析:本句的主句是”the Internet is causing disintermediation within companies”, “he argues”是插入语, 连词“as”的意思是 “如同,正如”, “did”指代的是“cause disintermediation”;冒号后的内容是对“just as it did in e-commerce”的解释说明。
句子译文:他论述说,正如电子商务中发生的脱媒现象一样—— 一旦津贴制度变得更加自助化,人力资源部所做的行政管理方面的工作会少得多,他们更多的是提供建议和咨询——互联网也正在导致公司之间的脱媒(非中介化)现象。
 
题目分析
1.答案为C属事实细节题。本文通过阐述一种现象来引入话题。
2. 答案为A属推理判断题。文章第一段指出网络公司(DOTCOMS)也许即将灭亡,但是在公司内部,因特网仍然是节省成本的新办法。第二段指出福特公司希望把一些服务性信息放到网上,能够节省公司及其员工的时间,通用汽车公司也效仿这一做法。由此我们可以看出节约时间、节约开支是这两个公司想要给其员工配备电脑的原因。
3. 答案为D属事实细节题。文章中提到“the human-resources department does much less administration once the benefits system is more self-service,”,但这并不意味着人力资源部的工作会有所减轻,这只是工作形式有所改变,人力资源部将把更多的工作重心放在建议和咨询方面。
4. 答案为B属猜词题。文章中提到多数情况下都是纳赛尔先生在聊天。他虽然收到回复的电子邮件有几百封,但基本上都是由他发问,别人来回答这种形式,因此这种交流是单向的。
5. 答案为C属事实细节题。原文对应信息是“One day, working in human resources might even be fun.”。选项A在文中对应的正确信息是“DOTCOMS may be moribund”;选项B对应的正确信息是“all designed for digestion in ten- or 15-minute gobbets.”,它的意思是“所有这些课程的设计保证学员能在10至15分钟内消化理解。”;选项D对应的信息是“People want more and more of this self-service information, which they can manage themselves”,我们无法确定是否所有信息这些员工都能自行管理。
 
参考译文
网络公司(DOTCOMS)也许即将灭亡,但是在公司内部,因特网仍然是节省成本的新办法。 “B2E(“企业对职员”)并没有失败。” 福特汽车公司负责开发企业内部网潜力的拜平•帕特尔说,“相反,它仍然在发展。”
 
在说服员工上网方面福特比多数公司走得更远:它给它的美国员工提供个人电脑,而90% 的员工都接受了。福特希望把一些服务性信息放到网上,能够节省公司及其员工的时间。福特公司的主要竞争对手通用汽车公司已考虑实施相似的计划,但发现多数愿意使用个人电脑的员工已经有了电脑。因此,它正在帮助职员支付高速宽带连接费用。
 
在福特公司,人力资源部率先制定了一项计划,为员工提供有关薪水和津贴的最新信息。在过去,员工有时发现,他们要等上好几个几星期才能得到一张用于纳税的薪水信息的复印件,而人力资源部的职员却不得不晕头晕脑地花好几个小时来回答几百个不同员工提出的同样的问题。现在,职员们可以在密码保护的网站上查看他们过去18个月的工资单。他们可查看所有的扣除额、工作时间等信息。所有这信息都放在人力资源部的数据库里:把这些信息显示出来节省了员工的时间。
 
“人们越来越多地需要这类自助信息,而这些信息是他们自己就可以管理的。” 帕特尔先生说,“这里根本没有所谓的信息超载一说,因为这是他们的信息。”甚至在线培训也似乎进行得更好一些:现在,福特的员工从网上下载系列课程,其中包括一个有关“倾听和处理棘手情况”的课程。所有这些课程的设计保证学员能在10至15分钟内消化理解。公司声称,在过去的六个月里,培训费用减少了2百万美元,因为几乎没有人丢下他们的工作去学习。
 
公司还用公司的内部网与世界各地的员工进行通信联络。福特公司的老板雅克•纳赛尔每周发一个“让我们聊天”的帖子。实际上,多数情况都是纳赛尔先生在聊天。他收到回复的电子邮件有几百封,但交流基本上是单向的。福特公司还经营聊天室。员工们可在聊天室向在线做客的公司内的专家和公司外的分析人员提各种各样的问题。
 
帕特尔认为,通信技术最终将再造公司的行为方式。它将鼓励合作和团队精神。他论述说,正如电子商务中发生的脱媒现象一样—— 一旦津贴制度变得更加自助化,人力资源部所做的行政管理方面的工作会少得多,他们更多的是提供建议和咨询——互联网也正在导致公司之间的脱媒(非中介化)现象。总有一天,在人力资源部工作甚至会充满乐趣。
考研英语阅读理解精读100unit44

Unit 44

Just over 20 years ago, IBM introduced the PC jr. Derided as awkward and underpowered, the PC jr. never caught on with kids or parents. But then again, IBM didn't have the Mouse behind it.
 
Backed by a posse of Mickey, Minnie, and Pluto, the Walt Disney Co. is looking to do what IBM never could: successfully market a computer system designed specifically for kids. The Disney Dream Desk PC ($600) and its complementary big-eared, 14.1-inch monitor ($300) are aimed at kids ranging from 6 to 12 years old. But even though the system is embellished with images of Mickey and software featuring Donald Duck and Goofy, the Dream Desk is more than a toy.
 
Using Microsoft Windows XP, the Disney system is based on an Intel Celeron D processor and comes with a 40-gigabyte hard drive plus a combination CD burner and DVD player--serious enough hardware to manage games or homework. As an added feature, there's a stylus that sits in a cradle built into the keyboard. The stylus is a more comfortable pointing device than a mouse for little hands, and it also lets children create their own digital sketches.
 
Teaching tool. On the software side, Disney has included a trio of creativity programs called Disney Flix, Pix, and Mix that lets kids create their own movies, add Disney characters to digital pictures, and compose music. For parents worried about the World Wild Web, Disney has included a ContentProtect program that prevents curious tykes from visiting sites you'd rather they not view. And if you suspect they are using the Net more for games than research, the program will even track your children's surfing and report back to you.
 
By and large, the Disney system succeeds with the Dream Desk. Design elements like the monitor's mouseketeer ears, which conceal speakers, certainly grabbed my 22-month-old daughter's attention. But while she may have enjoyed "playing with Mickey," parents may wonder if computers for kids are a help or hindrance when it comes to learning. "The danger is that people tend to replace actual human instruction with these computers," says Reid Lyon, chief of the Child Development and Behavior Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development at the National Institutes of Health. According to Lyon, computers are a fine tool to help kids learn--as long as there's parental participation.
 
Parents looking for educational titles on the Dream Desk will have to shop elsewhere. Furthermore, the total system price is about $150 more than comparably equipped plain-Jane PC s, and some elements of the Disney PC could be improved. Making the LCD monitor touch sensitive would be a nice addition for kids, as would a clear cover to protect the screen from sticky little fingers. In addition, some parents may bridle at the brazen commercialism of having a large orange button on the system's keyboard that takes kids directly to Disney's $9.95-a-month Toontown online game.
 
On the other hand, what parent hasn't succumbed to a son or daughter's desire for a SpongeBob toy, Spiderman lunchbox, or Dora backpack? And while this PC may have big ears, it's not just some Mickey Mouse computer.
 
注(1):本文选自U.S. News & World Report; 10/18/2004, p87-87, 2/3p, 1c;
注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象2004年真题Text 1(个别题目稍做调整);
 
1.       How can the Walt Disney Co. make a computer system popular with the kids?
 
[A]The images of the Walt Disney Co. are deeply rooted in kids’ heart.
[B]The Dream Desk is just like a super toy.
[C]The computer system is designed specifically for kids.
[D]Kids can use the computer system for games and doing homework.
 
2.       Which of the following is not the description of the Dream Desk?
 
[A]Learning and playing are perfectly combined in this computer system.
[B]The hardware is enough for the use of a kid.
[C]The software takes the kids’ needs and parents’ worry into consideration.
[D]The Dream Desk decorated with the image of Mickey catches the kids’ eyes.
 
3.       How can the parents take full advantage of the computer in the learning of their kids?
 
[A]Not allowing the kids to visit the inappropriate web sites.
[B]Using the computer to arouse kids’ interest in learning.
[C]Fully exploring the potential function of the computer.
[D]Working together with their kids.
 
4.       Which of the following is not true according to Paragraph 6?
 
[A]The Dream Desk does not have price advantage.
[B]The Dream Desk has been equipped with sensitive LCD monitor and a clear cover.
[C]Some parents have offensive feelings toward the orange button indicating commercialism.
[D]The computer system fails to cater for all the parents.
 
5.       What can we learn from the last paragraph?
 
[A]The big ears make this PC look like a big toy that many kids long for.
[B]Parents always try their best to satisfy their kids’ needs.
[C]Parents find it difficult to refuse to buy their kids such toys as Mickey Mouse computer.
[D]Mickey Mouse computer is a computer, rather than a toy.
 
答案:CADBC
 
篇章剖析
本文详细介绍了由华特迪斯尼公司推出的专为孩子设计的米老鼠电脑。第一段指出IBM电脑未在孩子和家长中流行起来;第二段指出华特迪斯尼公司正期望做IBM永远不可能做的事:成功地销售专门为孩子设计的计算机系统“迪斯尼梦想台式个人电脑”;第三段指出这款电脑的配置;第四段指出这款电脑的教学功能;第五段指出电脑如何较好地履行其学习工具共能;第六段指出“梦想电脑”的一些不足之处;最后一段指出父母很难拒绝为他们的孩子购买这一看似大玩具的电脑。
 
词汇注释
deride [di5raid] vt. (及物动词) 嘲笑,愚弄,以轻蔑的态度说话或对待
awkward[5C:kwEd] adj. (手脚)不灵巧的;不熟练的;(动作或表情)笨拙的; 难看的; 粗野的;不协调的;没有风度的;不好使用的; 使人感到麻烦的; 难应付的, 棘手的;困难的, 危险的
underpowered [9QndE`paJEd] adj. 动力不足的,由动力不足的发动机驱动的
catch on vt. vi. 抓牢,理解;[口]投合人心, 受人欢迎,流行;变得风行
posse [5pCsi] n. 武装队;一队(警察);(临时组织起来的)一群人;[口]乌合之众, 暴徒;可能性;潜在力
look to v. 期望;看似将要;许诺做
embellish [Im5belIF] vt. 美化;装饰;加细节;润色;
The door of the old church was embellished with decorations. 老教堂的门是用雕饰美化的。
Goofy高飞,迪斯尼卡通中既笨拙、多言、好奇又善良角色迪斯尼卡通人物,以宫廷骑士长官的身份出现在影片中。
trio .[6triou] n. 三个(或人)一组,三件套
tyke (也作tike) [taik] n. 小孩子,尤指小男孩
by and large adv. 大体上, 基本上
succeed with vi. 在...上获得成功
hindrance [5hindrEns] n. 妨害, 障碍, 干扰, 延[停]滞;障碍物, 起妨碍作用的人[物];
comparable [5kCmpErEbl] adj. 可相比(with); 比得上的(to);类似的;可供比较的,相对照的;相对等的
bridle [5braidl] at vi. 轻视,瞧不起
brazen [5breIz(E)n] adj. 声音响而刺耳的;厚颜无耻的
succumb [sE5kQm] vi. (常与to连用) (向强大力量或向强烈欲望)屈服,屈从;服从
 
难句突破
1.Making the LCD monitor touch sensitive would be a nice addition for kids, as would a clear cover to protect the screen from sticky little fingers.
主体句式:Making … would be a nice addition for kids …
结构分析:现在分词结构“making the LCD monitor touch sensitive”做本句的主语;连词“as”的意思是“如同,正如”;动词短语“protect … from”的意思是“保护…使不遭受”。本句使用的是虚拟语气,“would be”暗示与现在事实相反。
句子译文:对孩子而言,正如使用屏保可以保护屏幕不被小孩子粘乎乎的小手弄脏一样,把液晶显示器做得触摸起来很敏感或许是个很好的附加功能。
2.On the other hand, what parent hasn't succumbed to a son or daughter's desire for a SpongeBob toy, Spiderman lunchbox, or Dora backpack?
主体句式:what parent hasn't succumbed to …desire …?
结构分析:“what”的意思是“what kind of ”,“succumb to”的意思是“(向强大力量或向强烈欲望)屈服,屈从;服从”。本句的意思是“All parents succumb to a son or daughter's desire for a SpongeBob toy, Spiderman lunchbox, or Dora backpack”。
句子译文:什么样的父母会不满足儿子或女儿想得到一件“海绵波波”玩具、一个蜘蛛侠餐盒或多拉背包的愿望呢?
 
题目分析
1.答案为C属推理判断题。从文章中我们知道这款电脑是专为孩子量身打造的,独特的米老鼠外形,设置的功能等都是专为孩子考虑的,因此也深受孩子的喜爱。
2. 答案为A属事实细节题。句子“But while she may have enjoyed "playing with Mickey," parents may wonder if computers for kids are a help or hindrance when it comes to learning.”表达了家长为孩子在电脑玩与学方面的担忧,暗示了电脑在玩与学方面并不是一个完美的结合。
3. 答案为D属事实细节题。原文对应信息是“According to Lyon, computers are a fine tool to help kids learn--as long as there's parental participation.”。
4. 答案为B属事实细节题。做对本题的关键是对句子“Making the LCD monitor touch sensitive would be a nice addition for kids, as would a clear cover to protect the screen from sticky little fingers.”的正确理解。这个句子使用的是虚拟语气,表示的是与现在事实相反的状况。这个句子是对前一句“some elements of the Disney PC could be improved.”的补充说明。选项A在文中对应的信息是“the total system price is about $150 more than comparably equipped plain-Jane PC s”;选项C对应的信息是“some parents may bridle at the brazen commercialism of having a large orange button on the system's keyboard that takes kids directly to Disney's $9.95-a-month Toontown online game.”,“bridle at”的意思是“轻视,瞧不起”;正因为有的父母瞧不起这种厚颜无耻的重商主义,选项D也是正确的。
5. 答案为C属推理判断题。本题的关键是要理解句子“what parent hasn't succumbed to a son or daughter's desire for a SpongeBob toy, Spiderman lunchbox, or Dora backpack?”的含义。这句话的意思是“什么样的父母会不满足儿子或女儿想得到一件“海绵波波”玩具、一个蜘蛛侠餐盒或多拉背包的愿望呢?”,言外之意是父母都会满足孩子想要玩具的心愿。因为这种电脑配有“大耳朵”,所以它也是一个大玩具,而不只是一台米老鼠计算机了。这样,做父母的也就很难拒绝孩子想要一个大玩具计算机的愿望了。
 
参考译文
20多年前,IBM公司推出了初级个人电脑。这种电脑被人们嘲讽为笨拙而且动力不足,从未在小孩或父母中间流行起来。但IBM当时并没有在机子上配上“米老鼠”。
 
在米老鼠、米妮和普路托等一批卡通形象的支持下,华特迪斯尼公司正期望做IBM永远不可能做的事:成功地销售专门为孩子设计的计算机系统。“迪斯尼梦想台式个人电脑”(售价600美元)及其专门配备的长着大耳朵的14.1英寸显示器(售价300美元)瞄准的目标是6到12岁的孩子。但是,即使该系统用米老鼠形象加以装饰并配有唐老鸭和高飞的软件,但是“梦想台式电脑”再也不是一件纯粹的玩具了。
 
迪斯尼公司的这个系统是以英特尔赛扬处理器为基础的,使用的是微软XP视窗,配有一个40GB硬盘驱动器和组合式CD刻录机和DVD播放器——这种硬件配置用以玩游戏或做家庭作业足矣。新增加的设备有:装在键盘内的内置支架上的指示笔。对孩子的小手来说,指示笔是一个比鼠标更舒适的指向设备,它还可以使孩子们创作出他们自己的数字素描画。
 
教学工具。至于软件部分,迪斯尼公司安装了三合一创造性程序,称为“迪斯尼Flix,Pix和Mix”。这个程序可让小孩创造他们自己的电影、把迪斯尼人物添加到数字式图片中,以及作曲。由于父母对全球互联网(也有人称“万维网”)表示担忧,所以迪斯尼公司配置了“网络内容保护”程序。该程序可以防止好奇心强的孩子浏览你不想让他们看的网站。而且如果你怀疑孩子上网是为了玩游戏而不是为了学习,该程序甚至可以跟踪孩子的上网情况,并向你报告他们的上网记录。
 
迪斯尼公司的系统基本上在“梦想电脑”上获得了成功。像显示器上可以隐蔽说话者身份的“滑鼠”(mouseketeer)耳朵这样的设计元件肯定会吸引我22 个月大的女儿的注意力。但当她沉迷于“玩米老鼠”时,做父母的也许会问:电脑对孩子的学习到底是一种帮助呢还是一种阻碍因素?设在全国健康研究院的儿童健康和人类发展研究所儿童发展和行为研究分所所长里德•利昂说:“危险的情况是,人们倾向于用电脑替换真人指导。”据利昂说,只要父母亲参与孩子的电脑活动,电脑是帮助孩子学习的一种绝好工具。
 
在“梦想电脑”上寻找教育标题的父母必须到别处采购。再者,该系统的总价比有类似配置的普通Jane个人电脑大约贵150美元,而且迪斯尼个人电脑的有些元件还可以改进。对孩子而言,正如使用屏保可以保护屏幕不被小孩子粘乎乎的小手弄脏一样,把液晶显示器做得触摸起来很敏感或许是个很好的附加功能。还有,在系统键盘上装一个橙色大按钮对有些父母来说感觉真是厚颜无耻的重商主义(这个按钮可以使孩子们直接登陆到每月要花费9.95美元的 “Toontown”网络游戏),这正是他们所瞧不起的。
 
另一方面,什么样的父母会不满足儿子或女儿想得到一件“海绵波波”玩具、一个蜘蛛侠餐盒或多拉背包的愿望呢?既然这种个人电脑配有“大耳朵”,那么它就不只是一台米老鼠计算机了。

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